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ScienceDaily: Most Popular News


Study tracks severe bleaching events on a Pacific coral reef over past century
Social media use increases depression and loneliness, study finds
Creating better devices: The etch stops here
Millions in danger of food insecurity due to severe Caribbean droughts
Anopheles mosquitoes could spread Mayaro virus in US, other diverse regions
Materials scientist creates fabric alternative to batteries for wearable devices
Tiny footprints, big discovery: Reptile tracks oldest ever found in Grand Canyon
Navigating our thoughts: Fundamental principles of thinking
Warming waters caused rapid -- and opposite -- shifts in connected marine communities
How many calories do you burn? It depends on time of day
Ancient DNA evidence reveals two unknown migrations from North to South America
Harvesting renewable energy from the sun and outer space at the same time
Watch a 3D-engineered human heart tissue beat
Brain signature of depressed mood unveiled in new study
History of early settlement and survival in Andean highlands revealed by ancient genomes
Decline in shorebirds linked to climate change, experts warn
Can't sleep? Fruit flies and energy drinks offer new clues
See-through film rejects 70 percent of incoming solar heat
DNA of world's oldest natural mummy unlocks secrets of Ice Age tribes in the Americas
Brain activity pattern may be early sign of schizophrenia
Replaying the tape of life: Is it possible?
Healing kidneys with nanotechnology
Genetic 'whodunnit' for cancer gene solved
A burst of 'synchronous' light
Bees on the brink
Self-assembling protein filaments designed and built from scratch
Ancient child's tooth reveals picture of Alaska's early inhabitants
Culture may explain why brains have become bigger
What could cause the Mississippi Bight to become hypoxic?
Yellowstone streams recovering thanks to wolf reintroduction
Unique study shows how bats maneuver
Aging a flock of stars in the Wild Duck Cluster
The secret behind coral reef diversity? Time, lots of time
Orangutans spontaneously bend straight wires into hooks to fish for food
Sensory neurons can be used to discover therapies for ALS
Traditional glaucoma test can miss severity of disease
Factors affecting turbulence scaling
Pore size alone does not matter when biological nanopores act as sugar chain biosensors
New marker provides insights into the development of type 2 diabetes
Species' longevity depends on brain cell numbers
A major role for a small organ in the immune response during pregnancy
Scientists opening up access to science through DIY equipment
Blue light can reduce blood pressure, study suggests
Metallic nanocatalysts imitate the structure of enzymes
Some of retina's light-sensing cells may have ancient roots
Rushing kids to specialize in one sport may not be best path to success
New ranking method could help hotels to maximize their revenue
Air pollution is associated with increased emergency department visits for heart and lung disease
What do metastatic cancer cells have in common with sharks?
Biomimetics: The chemical tricks of our blood
Novel strategy appears to protect retina when disease reduces oxygen
Florida monarch butterfly populations have dropped 80 percent since 2005
Study calls for sugar tax
Cell behavior, once shrouded in mystery, is revealed in new light
Biodiversity draws the ecotourism crowd
Combination chemotherapy and immunotherapy effective in Phase II leukemia study
Body clock researchers prevent liver cancer growth in mice


Study tracks severe bleaching events on a Pacific coral reef over past century



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 01:43 PM PST


A new study has uncovered the history of bleaching on a reef in the epicenter of El Nino, revealing how some corals have been able to return after facing extreme conditions.


Social media use increases depression and loneliness, study finds



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 01:43 PM PST


Facebook, Snapchat, and Instagram may not be great for personal well-being. The first experimental study examining use of multiple platforms shows a causal link between time spent on these social media and increased depression and loneliness.


Creating better devices: The etch stops here



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 01:43 PM PST


Researchers have discovered a new, more precise method to create nanoscale-size electromechanical devices.


Millions in danger of food insecurity due to severe Caribbean droughts



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 01:43 PM PST


Climate change is impacting the Caribbean, with millions facing increasing food insecurity and decreasing freshwater availability as droughts become more likely across the region, according to new research.


Anopheles mosquitoes could spread Mayaro virus in US, other diverse regions



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 01:43 PM PST


Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are well known as primary vectors of malaria. But a new study suggests that Anopheles species, including some found in the United States, also are capable of carrying and transmitting an emerging pathogen, Mayaro virus, which has caused outbreaks of disease in South America and the Caribbean.


Materials scientist creates fabric alternative to batteries for wearable devices



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 01:42 PM PST


A major factor holding back development of wearable biosensors for health monitoring is the lack of a lightweight, long-lasting power supply. Now scientists report that they have developed a method for making a charge-storing system that is easily integrated into clothing for 'embroidering a charge-storing pattern onto any garment.'


Tiny footprints, big discovery: Reptile tracks oldest ever found in Grand Canyon



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:24 AM PST


Geologists have discovered that a set of 28 footprints left behind by a reptile-like creature 310 million years ago are the oldest ever to be found in Grand Canyon National Park.


Navigating our thoughts: Fundamental principles of thinking



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:24 AM PST


Humans think using their brain's navigation system: Researchers combine individual threads of evidence to form a theory of human thinking.


Warming waters caused rapid -- and opposite -- shifts in connected marine communities



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:24 AM PST


Two connected marine ecosystems -- the Eastern English Channel and Southern North Sea -- experienced big and opposite changes in their fish communities over a 30-year period. Rapid warming drove smaller ocean fishes to shift abruptly northward from one ecosystem to the other.


How many calories do you burn? It depends on time of day



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:24 AM PST


Researchers have made the surprising discovery that the number of calories people burn while at rest changes with the time of day. When at rest, people burn 10 percent more calories in the late afternoon and early evening than in the early morning hours.


Ancient DNA evidence reveals two unknown migrations from North to South America



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:24 AM PST


A team has used genome-wide ancient DNA data to revise Central and South American history. Their analysis of DNA from 49 individuals spanning about 10,000 years in Belize, Brazil, the Central Andes, and southern South America has concluded that the majority of Central and South American ancestry arrived from at least three different streams of people entering from North America, all arising from one ancestral lineage of migrants who crossed the Bering Strait.


Harvesting renewable energy from the sun and outer space at the same time



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:24 AM PST


Scientists have demonstrated for the first time that heat from the sun and coldness from outer space can be collected simultaneously with a single device. Their research suggests that devices for harvesting solar and space energy will not compete for land space and can actually help each other function more efficiently.


Watch a 3D-engineered human heart tissue beat



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:24 AM PST


Researchers have developed a way to grow human heart tissue that can serve as a model for the upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. The tissue, derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPCSs), beats, expresses genes, and responds to drugs in a manner similar to a real human atrium. The model may be useful for evaluating disease mechanisms and drugs for atrial fibrillation -- the most common type of arrhythmia.


Brain signature of depressed mood unveiled in new study



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:24 AM PST


New research has identified a common pattern of brain activity that may be behind low mood feelings, particularly in people who have a tendency towards anxiety. The newly discovered network is a significant advance in research on the neurobiology of mood, and could serve as a biomarker to help scientists developing new therapies to help people with mood disorders such as depression.


History of early settlement and survival in Andean highlands revealed by ancient genomes



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:24 AM PST


A multi-center study of the genetic remains of people who settled thousands of years ago in the Andes Mountains of South America reveals a complex picture of human adaptation from early settlement, to a split about 9,000 years ago between high and lowland populations, to the devastating exposure to European disease in the 16th-century colonial period.


Decline in shorebirds linked to climate change, experts warn



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:24 AM PST


Researchers have discovered that daily nest predation of shorebirds has increased threefold over the last 70 years. The data suggest the larger increase in the Arctic relative to the tropics indicates a link to climate change.


Can't sleep? Fruit flies and energy drinks offer new clues



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:23 AM PST


Like humans, fruit flies are active during the day, sleep at night and have similar sleep characteristics. A study has discovered a new gene and uncovered a mechanism that modulates sleep by controlling the movement of taurine -- a common ingredient found in many energy drinks -- into neuron cells of the fly brain. Taurine also is abundant in the human brain and is consistently elevated in blood and urine of sleep-deprived people.


See-through film rejects 70 percent of incoming solar heat



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:23 AM PST


Engineers have developed a heat-rejecting film that could be applied to a building's windows to reflect up to 70 percent of the sun's incoming heat. The film is able to remain highly transparent below 32 degrees Celsius, or 89 degrees Fahrenheit. They estimate that if every exterior-facing window in a building were covered in this film, the building's air conditioning and energy costs could drop by 10 percent.


DNA of world's oldest natural mummy unlocks secrets of Ice Age tribes in the Americas



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:23 AM PST


A wide ranging international study that genetically analysed the DNA of a series of famous and controversial ancient remains across North and South America has discovered that the Spirit Cave remains -- the world's oldest natural mummy - was a Native American. They were also able to dismiss a longstanding theory that a group called Paleoamericans existed in North America before Native Americans.


Brain activity pattern may be early sign of schizophrenia



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:23 AM PST


Neuroscientists have identified a pattern of brain activity that is correlated with development of schizophrenia, which they say could be used as marker to diagnose the disease earlier.


Replaying the tape of life: Is it possible?



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:23 AM PST


A new review explores the complexity of evolution's predictability in extraordinary detail. In it, researchers closely examine evidence from a number of empirical studies of evolutionary repeatability and contingency in an effort to fully interrogate ideas about contingency's role in evolution.


Healing kidneys with nanotechnology



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:23 AM PST


Researchers have developed a new method for treating and preventing acute kidney injury. Their technique involves the use of tiny, self-assembling forms measuring just billionths of a meter in diameter.


Genetic 'whodunnit' for cancer gene solved



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:22 AM PST


Long thought to suppress cancer by slowing cellular metabolism, the protein complex AMPK also seemed to help some tumors grow, confounding researchers. Now, researchers have solved the long-standing mystery around why AMPK can both hinder and help cancer.


A burst of 'synchronous' light



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:22 AM PST


Excited photo-emitters can cooperate and radiate simultaneously, a phenomenon called superfluorescence. Researchers have recently been able to create this effect with long-range ordered nanocrystal superlattices. This discovery could enable future developments in LED lighting, quantum sensing, quantum communication and future quantum computing.


Bees on the brink



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:22 AM PST


Using an innovative robotic platform to observe bees' behavior, researchers showed that, following exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides -- the most commonly-used class of pesticides in agriculture -- bees spent less time nursing larvae and were less social that other bees. Additional tests showed that exposure impaired bees ability to warm the nest, and to build insulating wax caps around the colony.


Self-assembling protein filaments designed and built from scratch



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:22 AM PST


For the first time, scientists have created, from scratch, self-assembling protein filaments built from identical protein subunits that snap together spontaneously to form long, helical, thread-like configurations. Protein filaments are essential components of several structural and moving parts in living cells, as well as many body tissues. Being able to design and build protein filaments could allow for engineering novel materials for nano-electronics or scaffolds for new diagnostic tests.


Ancient child's tooth reveals picture of Alaska's early inhabitants



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:22 AM PST


Research on a newly rediscovered 9,000-year-old child's tooth has reshaped our understanding of Alaska's ancient people, their genetic background and their diets. The tooth is only the second known remnant of a population of early migrants known as Ancient Beringians. Combined with previous research, the find indicates that Ancient Beringians remained in Alaska for thousands of years after first migrating across the Bering Land Bridge that connected eastern Asia and Alaska.


Culture may explain why brains have become bigger



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 11:22 AM PST


A theory called the cultural brain hypothesis could explain extraordinary increases in brain size in humans and other animals over the last few million years, according to a new study.


What could cause the Mississippi Bight to become hypoxic?



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 10:41 AM PST


A recent article explores aspects of the environmental conditions that can potentially lead to hypoxia in the Mississippi Bight region of the northern Gulf of Mexico. This area extends from Apalachicola in Florida to the Mississippi River Delta.


Yellowstone streams recovering thanks to wolf reintroduction



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 10:41 AM PST


In the first study of its kind, scientists show that the return of large terrestrial carnivores can lead to improved stream structure and function.


Unique study shows how bats maneuver



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 10:41 AM PST


For the first time, researchers have succeeded in directly measuring the aerodynamics of flying animals as they maneuver in the air. Previously, the upstroke of the wings was considered relatively insignificant compared to the powerful downstroke but, in a new study, biologists have observed that it is on the upstroke of the wings that bats often turn.


Aging a flock of stars in the Wild Duck Cluster



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 10:41 AM PST


The way they move belies the true ages of the almost 3,000 stars populating one of the richest star clusters known. Astronomers recently discovered the stars all were born in the same generation, solving a long-standing puzzle about how stars evolve.


The secret behind coral reef diversity? Time, lots of time



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 10:05 AM PST


One of the world's premier diving destinations owes its reputation as a hot spot of marine biodiversity to being undisturbed over millions of years, according to ecologists. The researchers conclude that patterns of high diversity may take tens of millions of years to arise, but can be wiped out in a few years by human impacts.


Orangutans spontaneously bend straight wires into hooks to fish for food



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 08:17 AM PST


Cognitive biologists and comparative psychologists have just studied hook tool making in a non-human primate species -- the orangutan. To the researchers' surprise the apes spontaneously manufactured hook tools out of straight wire within the very first trial and in a second task unbent curved wire to make a straight tool.


Sensory neurons can be used to discover therapies for ALS



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 08:17 AM PST


Scientists have shown that mutations in specific genes that destroy motor neurons and thereby cause the devastating effects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis -- also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease -- also attack sensory neurons. The discovery indicates that studying sensory neurons could provide new mechanistic insights to prevent, slow, or even reverse ALS.


Traditional glaucoma test can miss severity of disease



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 08:17 AM PST


The most common test for glaucoma can underestimate the severity of the condition by not detecting the presence of central vision loss, also known as macular degeneration, according to a new study.


Factors affecting turbulence scaling



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 08:17 AM PST


A new study focuses on hydrodynamic effects of external disturbances on fluids at critical points, including inconsistent turbulence in all directions, or anisotropy, and varying degrees of compressibility.


Pore size alone does not matter when biological nanopores act as sugar chain biosensors



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 08:17 AM PST


The effectiveness of nanopore biosensors capable of identifying sugar chains from biological molecules involved in key biological processes also depends on the nanopore's electrical charge and inner pore design.


New marker provides insights into the development of type 2 diabetes



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 08:17 AM PST


Small chemical changes in the DNA building blocks, which may be influenceable by lifestyle factors, can reduce the amount of IGFBP2. Researchers now report that these epigenetic changes increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, people with high blood levels of the binding protein IGFBP2 are less likely to develop this metabolic disorder. The changes in the blood are already detectable a few years prior to the onset of the disease.


Species' longevity depends on brain cell numbers



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 08:00 AM PST


Scientists have thought that the main determinant of maximal longevity in warm-blooded animals -- which varies from as little as 2 to as many as 211 years -- is a species' metabolic rate, which is inversely related to body size. It follows that at 2 years of life, small animals with high metabolic rates are already old, but large animals with low metabolic rates are still young.


A major role for a small organ in the immune response during pregnancy



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 08:00 AM PST


The immune system of a pregnant woman is altered during pregnancy, but not in the way previously believed, according to a new study. This study shows that the thymus, an organ of the immune system located close to the heart, plays an important role during a normal pregnancy in ensuring that the mother's immune system protects against infection while at the same time tolerating the fetus.


Scientists opening up access to science through DIY equipment



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 08:00 AM PST


Scientists have developed a piece of hardware to demonstrate how our brains function, as part of a growing range of equipment which uses DIY and 3D printable models to open up access to science education.


Blue light can reduce blood pressure, study suggests



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 08:00 AM PST


Exposure to blue light decreases blood pressure, reducing the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, a new study suggests.


Metallic nanocatalysts imitate the structure of enzymes



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 08:00 AM PST


An international team of researchers has transferred certain structural characteristics of natural enzymes, which ensure particularly high catalytic activity, to metallic nanoparticles. The desired chemical reaction thus did not take place at the particle surface as usual, but in channels inside the metal particles -- and with three times higher catalytic activity.


Some of retina's light-sensing cells may have ancient roots



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 08:00 AM PST


Scientists say they have identified what may be an ancient light-sensing mechanism in modern mouse retinal cells.


Rushing kids to specialize in one sport may not be best path to success



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 08:00 AM PST


It may be tempting for parents or coaches to urge young children to specialize in one sport early on to help maximize their chance at making it to the big leagues, but that might not be the best path to success.


New ranking method could help hotels to maximize their revenue



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 08:00 AM PST


Researchers have devised a new method to rank hotels more accurately.


Air pollution is associated with increased emergency department visits for heart and lung disease



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 08:00 AM PST


Outdoor air pollution is a major health threat worldwide. New research found that exposure to certain air pollutants is linked to increased emergency department visits for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.


What do metastatic cancer cells have in common with sharks?



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 07:59 AM PST


In a new study, researchers report that when cancer cells become invasive (metastatic), they start behaving in 'predatory' ways. Metastatic cancer cells differ from their non-metastatic counterparts not only in their genetics, but also in their moving strategy: they spread more rapidly and are more directional than non-invasive cancer cells.


Biomimetics: The chemical tricks of our blood



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 06:13 AM PST


Biomolecules such as hemoglobin or chlorophyll are difficult to study. It is worth investigating similar but simpler structures in the lab. Unexpected behavior has now been found in phthalocyanines, whose molecular ring structure closely resembles the crucial sections of hemoglobin or chlorophyll. Their center can be switched into different states with the help of green light, which affects their chemical behavior.


Novel strategy appears to protect retina when disease reduces oxygen



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 06:13 AM PST


An enzyme known to help our liver get rid of ammonia also appears to be good at protecting our retina, scientists report.


Florida monarch butterfly populations have dropped 80 percent since 2005



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 06:12 AM PST


A 37-year survey of monarch populations in North Central Florida shows that caterpillars and butterflies have been declining since 1985 and have dropped by 80 percent since 2005.


Study calls for sugar tax



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 06:12 AM PST


People who drink sugary beverages are more likely to eat fast food and confectionery and less likely to make healthy dietary choices, new research has found.


Cell behavior, once shrouded in mystery, is revealed in new light



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 06:12 AM PST


Previously, in order to study cell membranes, researchers would often have to freeze samples. The proteins within these samples would not behave like they would in a normal biological environment. Now, using an atomic force microscope, researchers can observe individual proteins in an unfrozen sample -- acting in a normal biological environment. This new observation tool could help scientists better predict how cells will behave when new components are introduced.


Biodiversity draws the ecotourism crowd



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 06:12 AM PST


Nature -- if you support it, ecotourists will come. Managed wisely, both can win. The balancing act of protecting and fostering biodiversity with hordes of tourists in pristine nature parks is a global challenge. There are pathways to having it all -- protected areas with a rich variety of animals and plants and thriving tourism. In fact, the better the biodiversity, the more tourists will visit. What it takes to balance it is careful, holistic conservation strategy.


Combination chemotherapy and immunotherapy effective in Phase II leukemia study



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 06:12 AM PST


A combination of the standard-of-care chemotherapy drug known as azacitidine, with nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, demonstrated an encouraging response rate and overall survival in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia, according to new findings.


Body clock researchers prevent liver cancer growth in mice



Posted: 08 Nov 2018 06:12 AM PST


The body's internal clock could play a critical role in the fight against certain types of liver cancer, according to a recent preclinical study.
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